Linting for Mozilla JavaScript code

One of the projects I’ve been really excited about recently is getting ESLint working for a lot of our JavaScript code. If you haven’t come across ESLint or linters in general before they are automated tools that scan your code and warn you about syntax errors. They can usually also be set up with a set of rules to enforce code styles and warn about potential bad practices. The devtools and Hello folks have been using eslint for a while already and Gijs asked why we weren’t doing this more generally. This struck a chord with me and a few others and so we’ve been spending some time over the past few weeks getting our in-tree support for ESLint to work more generally and fixing issues with browser and toolkit JavaScript code in particular to make them lintable.

One of the hardest challenges with this is that we have a lot of non-standard JavaScript in our tree. This includes things like preprocessing as well as JS features that either have since been standardized with a different syntax (generator functions for example) or have been dropped from the standardization path (array comprehensions). This is bad for developers as editors can’t make sense of our code and provide good syntax highlighting and refactoring support when it doesn’t match standard JavaScript. There are also plans to remove the non-standard JS features so we have to remove that stuff anyway.

So a lot of the work done so far has been removing all this non-standard stuff so that ESLint can pass with only a very small set of style rules defined. Soon we’ll start increasing the rules we check in browser and toolkit.

How do I lint?

From the command line this is simple. Make sure and run ./mach eslint --setup to install eslint and some related packages then just ./mach eslint <directory or file> to lint a specific area. You can also lint the entire tree. For now you may need to periodically run setup again as we add new dependencies, at some point we may make mach automatically detect that you need to re-run it.

You can also add ESLint support to many code editors and as of today you can add ESLint support into hg!

Why lint?

Aside from just ensuring we have standard JavaScript in the tree linting offers a whole bunch of benefits.

  • Linting spots JavaScript syntax errors before you have to run your code. You can configure editors to run ESLint to tell you when something is broken so you can fix it even before you save.
  • Linting can be used to enforce the sorts of style rules that keep our code consistent. Imagine no more nit comments in code review forcing you to update your patch. You can fix all those before submitting and reviewers don’t have to waste time pointing them out.
  • Linting can catch real bugs. When we turned on one of the basic rules we found a problem in shipping code.
  • With only standard JS code to deal with we open the possibility of using advanced like AST transforms for refactoring (e.g. recast). This could be very useful for switching from Cu.import to ES6 modules.
  • ESLint in particular allows us to write custom rules for doing clever things like handling head.js imports for tests.

Where are we?

There’s a full list of everything that has been done so far in the dependencies of the ESLint metabug but some highlights:

  • Removed #include preprocessing from browser.js moving all included scripts to global-scripts.inc
  • Added an ESLint plugin to allow linting the JS parts of XBL bindings
  • Fixed basic JS parsing issues in lots of b2g, browser and toolkit code
  • Created a hg extension that will warn you when committing code that fails ESLint
  • Turned on some basic linting rules
  • Mozreview is close to being able to lint your code and give review comments where things fail
  • Work is almost complete on a linting test that will turn orange on the tree when code fails to lint

What’s next?

I’m grateful to all those that have helped get things moving here but there is still more work to do. If you’re interested there’s really two ways you can help. We need to lint more files and we need to turn on more lint rules.

The .eslintignore file shows what files are currently ignored in the lint checks. Removing files and directories from that involves fixing JavaScript standards issues generally but every extra file we lint is a win for all the above reasons so it is valuable work. Also mostly straightforward once you get the hang of it, there are just a lot of files.

We also need to turn on more rules. We’ve got a rough list of the rules we want to turn on in browser and toolkit but as you might guess they aren’t on because they fail right now. Fixing up our JS to work with them is simple work but much appreciated. In some cases ESLint can also do the work for you!

One thought on “Linting for Mozilla JavaScript code

  1. How would you feel about using typescript, that might help taking the check a bit further and ease maintenance and refactoring?

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